Users’ awareness of augmented reality technology in mobile applications

Michał Skubis
Department of Commerce and Marketing, Poznań University of Economics
Al. Niepodległości 10 61-875 Poznań – ORCID 0000-0002-1357-2943

MINIB, 2021, Vol. 40, Issue 2
DOI: 10.2478/minib-2021-0006
P. 1-22
Published 30 June 2021


Augmented reality (AR) is becoming an increasingly popular technology, used in many fields. Particular prospects for its development are inherent in the dissemination of AR-based applications on widely used mobile devices. To guide the emerging research in this field, the level of knowledge of AR technology among potential consumers needs to be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness of AR in mobile applications among their potential users, attempting to determine whether it is possible to define the profile of a user characterized by a greater level of knowledge of AR. Statistical analysis of the results of original research carried out with the CAWI in the spring of 2020 showed that the knowledge of augmented reality technology among potential consumers is at a relatively low level. Moreover, this study found no characteristics correlated with this knowledge, in terms of either demographics, or interest in and knowledge of modern technologies in general.

Packaging as a purchase determinanton the dietary supplement market in Poland

Magdalena Ankiel
Poznań University of Economics and Business,
Al. Niepodległości 10, 61-875 Poznań, Poland – ORCID 0000-0003-2594-1600

Paulina Majewska
BIOFARM Sp. z o.o., Wałbrzyska 13, 60-198 Poznań, Poland

Maciej Urbaniak
University of Łódź;
Jana Matejki 22/26, 90-237 Łódź – ORCID 0000-0003-4127-1192

MINIB, 2021, Vol. 40, Issue 2
DOI: 10.2478/minib-2021-0007
P. 23-34
Published 30 June 2021


Unit packaging of dietary supplements – an inherent element of their manufacturing, without which they would be impossible to market — has numerous interlocking functions to fulfil, including the protective, transport, information, functional, ecological and marketing functions. The information function, however, is one of the priority functions of dietary supplement packaging. In the era of the continual development of online and selfservice stores (including pharmacies), such packaging has become one of the key sources of information about dietary supplements’ features and properties, while also serving as a brand image creator and a carrier of promotional information. This raises the questions of whether and to what extent the unit packaging of dietary supplements influences the purchasing decisions of consumers, what features and elements of such packaging are crucial for consumers in the purchasing process, and what significance supplement packaging has in the purchasing process against the background of other purchasing determinants. Seeking to address these questions, herein we present selected results of an original study conducted in 2019 with a purposely selected sample of 468 dietary supplement consumers in Poland, whose main purpose was to identify the role and significance of packaging as a determinant of purchase in relation to three selected categories of dietary supplements.

Developing students’ transversal competences through cultivation of health literacy competence

Tetyana Borova
Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics, Department of Pedagogy, Foreign Philology and Translation
Nauky Ave. 9a, 61166, Kharkiv, Ukraine – ORCID 0000-0003-1765-4425

Viktoriia Petrenko
Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics, Department of Pedagogy, Foreign Philology and Translation
Nauky Ave. 9a, 61166, Kharkiv, Ukraine – ORCID 0000-0001-7209-5107

Tetiana Ved
Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics, Department of Pedagogy, Foreign Philology and Translation
Ave.Nauky, 9a, 61166, Kharkiv, Ukraine – ORCID 0000-0002-4440-4248

Vasyl Pyvovarov
Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University, Department of Cultural Studies
st. Pushkinskaya, 77, 61024, Kharkiv, Ukraine – ORCID 0000-0001-9642-3611

MINIB, 2021, Vol. 40, Issue 2
DOI: 10.2478/minib-2021-0008
P. 35-52
Published 30 June 2021


The recognition that transversal competences are increasingly needed to face the challenges of the ever-changing world has given rise to work examining students’ development of transversal competences (TVCs) during their university time. This approach argues in favor of embedding transversal competences as well as health literacy competence and subject-based competences in curricula. The mini-study presented herein first posits a logical model for the integration of transversal competences in university curricula, supplemented with a qualimetric model comprising 6 factors associated with transversal competences. The resulting tools for transversal competence evaluation and self-assessment were next applied in a pilot questionnaire study of a small group of management students at a local university. Overall, the findings support the claim that students’ TVC development requires a new educational paradigm based on a holistic approach to competence-based learning that involves the harmonious development of a person’s TVCs and subject-based competences. Moreover, the results may serve as a reference for future studies on transversal competences and health literacy in particular, as well as for teachers and researchers in related fields.

Evaluation of selected online image-building activities by Polish universities

Agnieszka Marzęda
University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28, 00-927 Warsaw – ORCID: 0000-0003-2607-4123

Dariusz Tworzydło
University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28, 00-927 Warsaw – ORCID 0000-0001-6396-6927

MINIB, 2021, Vol. 40, Issue 2
DOI: 10.2478/minib-2021-0009
P. 53-70
Published 30 June 2021


The purpose of this paper is to identify the online tools used by Polish universities and analyse to what extent these tools are used for image-related, communication, and marketing purposes. Based on our own analyses and desk research, we listed and then compared selected image-related activities carried out online by the higher education institutions rated as Poland’s top universities in the “Perspektywy Ranking”. We also extended our analysis to the universities rated as the world’s top universities, selected based on the Webometrics ranking, and identified a clear difference in trends. The online tools listed in this paper were evaluated in terms of their impact on the position of the higher education institutions in the education market.

Twenty-first century male elegance amongst elegantly-dressing Polish males and self-declared “dandies”

Grzegorz Maciejewski
University of Economics in Katowice, Department of Market and Consumption,
1 Maja Street 47, Build E, 40-287 Katowice, Poland – ORCID: 0000-0002-1318-0747

Dawid Lesznik
University of Economics in Katowice, Department of Market and Consumption,
1 Maja Street 47, Build E, 40-287 Katowice, Poland – ORCID : 0000-0002-4298-7013

MINIB, 2021, Vol. 40, Issue 2
DOI: 10.2478/minib-2021-0010
P. 71-92
Published 30 June 2021


Dandyism was a thriving philosophical and social movement amongst elegant men of the nineteenth century. The prevailing conviction in the literature on the subject is that the dandy trend began to gradually disappear in the twentieth century, whereas in the new millennium it essentially no longer exists, or at best exists only as a mere shadow of itself. Herein we report a questionnaire study of elegantly-dressing Polish males regarding their behaviour on the fashion market, seeking to gain an better image of this particular market segment and at the same time to identify the features of contemporary dandies and possible connections with the “metro” style. The results indicate that dandyism (at least in the respondents’ opinion) is still a lively and thriving e-consumer community, which clearly differs in terms of certain features from metrosexualism. However, the modern-day “dandies” cannot easily be considered heirs to the ideals of their nineteenth-century counterparts. Our findings, in particular the characterization of twenty-first-century elegant-dressing men in Poland, may be of use to fashion brands in the broader men’s elegance segment.

Marketing, Start-ups and Innovation: A Framework for Understanding the Possibilities for Harnessing Technological Innovations in Tourism

Dariusz Michał Trzmielak
University of Lodz, Management Faculty,
ul. Matejki 22/26 90-237 Łódź – ORCID: 0000-0002-4455-8845

Devi Shonia
Sokhumi State University, Tbilisi
61 Politkovskaya street, 0186 Tbilisi

Magdalena Skoneczna
University of Lodz, Management Faculty,
ul. Matejki 22/26 90-237 Łódź – ORCID: 0000-0002-3440-7357

MINIB, 2021, Vol. 40, Issue 2
DOI: 10.2478/minib-2021-0011
p. 93-113
Published 30 June 2021


The travel and tourism industry is one of the largest and fastest-growing sectors in the world. In the case of countries like Georgia, where tourism is a priority sector of the economy, innovation is crucial for a tourism-based development strategy — and this has become particularly important in the post-pandemic realities. This paper proposes a certain framework for understanding the possibilities for harnessing technological innovations in the travel industry (particularly apps and websites). It then considers the specific example of the country of Georgia, outlining the state’s measures meant to foster IT innovation in tourism and also certain moderate successes to date in this respect. Next, the paper looks to Russian tourist-sector start-ups as models for operation that be successfully harnessed in the Georgian tourism industry, examining several such Russian start-ups in closer detail.

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